Avila de los Caballeros is a city located in the Spanish autonomous community of Castilla y Leon, the capital of the homonymous province. "Avila de los Caballeros" is an honorific title from the city. Another is "Avila of the King, and yet another" Avila loyalists "are all present in the flag of the city.
The city is particularly characterized by having a complete medieval walls, Romanesque.
It is also one of the cities with the highest number of churches (Romanesque and Gothic) and restaurateurs establishments in relation to the number of its inhabitants.
It is considered by many as the birthplace of "Songs and Saints." It said the writer José Martínez Ruiz 'Azorín "after writing" The Castilian Soul "which was" perhaps the sixteenth century city of Spain. "
The coat of Avila is a red or red field in which depicted King Alfonso VII in the apse of the Cathedral of Avila by the motto: "Avila del Rey, of the loyal of knights.
Located at 1.131 m altitude on a rocky promontory on the right bank Adaja River, a tributary of the Douro, is the highest provincial capital in Spain. The municipality covers 231.9 km ² and the adjective with respect to its people is "Avila" or "Avila" with its plural "Avila" and "Avileses.
Bounded on the north by the municipality of Cárdenas, Mingorría, San Esteban de los Patos, Tolbaños, Berrocalejo de Aragona, Median Voltoya and Eye-Athos, on the east by the Santa Maria del Cubillo, southeast of Navalperal with Pinares and The Herradón of Pine, south of Tornadizos with Avila, southwest of Gemuño the west with those of The Fresno, the butt, and Marlin Martiherrero and northwest with those of Bularros and Monsalupe.
The city lies between the pit and Amblés Valley. Annual precipitation is low compared to surrounding areas, this rain shadow implies that the flow of the river is almost dry Adaja several months last year and that the city historically has had water problems.
The city's name comes from the peoples and tribes that have inhabited for millennia the province. The first were the Vettones, who called obile (high mountain), one of the most important forts of this tribe, along with Sanchorreja, Berrueco, Mesa de Miranda, Las Cogotas, satin and Ulaca. The Vettones left traces throughout the geography of the province of Avila, especially in the form of boars.
Later the Romans settled, giving the name of Abila or Abela. The Romans also left their mark on the city, which was then in the current Old Town, surrounded by the walls. Driveways, mosaics or the Large Market Square or the Great, are part of the Roman remains can be seen today.
The interior of the city still retains the typical layout of Roman towns hibernate type (stable forts) of rectangular, with two main streets (cardo and decumanus) orthogonally intersecting at the center where the forum was. Currently this is only partially modified layout, easily recognizing ancient Roman entrances to the doors of St. Vincent and Gonzalo Davila, where the buckets were conglobate original defensive in the medieval wall. Also keep the memory of the oblong blocks Roman insulae.
The Cardo maximum corresponds to the current Vallespín Street, while the maximum Decumano would constitute the Street of the Knights and the Calle de Bracamonte. All of them converge in the "Market Boy" which was the old forum. For its part, the Roman necropolis was east, beyond the Calle de San Segundo, so that in all this part of the wall can be seen funerary pieces reused as building materials: stelae, altars, imprest, "verraquitos" Urns and Granite capsules embedded in the paintings of the eastern wall.
Apart from these examples of architecture, there are numerous pottery remains, coins and other archaeological objects representative of daily life in antiquity.
The Visigoths first settlements on the peninsula are considered geographically closed. According Palol and their studies, the Visigoths in Spain settlements include the cities of Burgos, Soria, Guadalajara, Toledo, Ávila, Cáceres, Madrid and Palencia, which suggests that the choice of these settlements were strategically. Although its precise location is not determined in the city of Avila, is believed to have been one of the strongholds of the Visigothic period. During the sixth and seventh centuries there were no outstanding conflicts in the city.
The Visigoths were using land to grow feed grain and livestock, as can be seen in shale found in the municipality of Álvaro Diego. The importance of Avila in this period is due to its religious character, according to existing documentation detailing the involvement of bishops in the councils of Toledo Abela.
Reaffirms the Visigoth in Avila becoming the church of Santa Maria de la Antigua. The chronicles record that this monastery was founded before the year 687, being mixed monastery (for both sexes) until the arrival of the Arabs. Its importance was such that it is cited as the place where he died Santa Leocadia, daughter of King Wamba. Would be buried in this church also the Duke Severiano, a noble Visigoth.
You can specify the absence of data on the circumstances and vicissitudes during the period of Muslim rule nor realize the social, economic, cultural, political and religious who may have this belief in Avila. The only thing that seems certain is that during the early years of the Muslim invasion in the city became a strategic, long desired by Arabs and Christians as defensive enclave, and fighting for its possession were permanent. There were raids by the Christian kings in the city after the Muslim occupation but failed to settle. Alfonso I and his son Fruela conducted several expeditions arriving into the city (740-742) without the intention of remaining, rather with intent to destroy the defenses, collect loot and simultaneously, taking advantage of the Christian settlers in the city still the king in his retreat, obtained settlers to the occupied lands and warriors to defend the Christian kingdoms. Following these raids, succeed in Avila three centuries of the little known happenings. Avila, like other peoples of the plateau, because no man's land is subject to successive expeditions of each other, with the consequent destruction of fields and towns, was practically deserted. From the eighth century these areas or cities can be seen in the so-called "strategic desert" in which there was a strong depopulation, becoming in turn no man's land and the scene of raids by both forces.
In the eleventh century Don Raymond of Burgundy, son of Alfonso VI of Castile was in charge of restocking the center of the peninsula, and in order to protect the walled cities arise Toledo Salamanca, Avila and Segovia. Later, the repopulation of the peninsula is being left farther south to Avila in the background almost no relevance at the time, but sent attorneys to the Castilian Cortes.
Castilian Civil War
During the Castilian civil war was the seat of the supporters of Prince Ali.
In the era of the Catholic Monarchs (second half of XV century) and Charles I and his son Philip II (XVI) the city is reborn thanks to the comings and goings of the court. The city and the province prospered and were the birthplace of numerous religious figures, writers and spiritual advisors such as Santa Teresa de Cepeda y Ahumada, better known as Santa Teresa de Jesus in the capital, San Juan de la Cruz in the province ( Fontiveros).
His council was one of the main organizers of the War of the Communities and it formed the first board of the community.
Seventeenth and eighteenth centuries
From the seventeenth century the city began a long decline and depopulation that left her with just 4,000 inhabitants.
During this century there was a slow demographic recovery with railway construction.
The development process and intense urbanization beginning in the twentieth century have led the city into the background of the Spanish reality. The first decades of the century have shown also a tendency of the city to preserve its traditions against the social changes that would necessarily produce across the country.
In 1936 after the outbreak of Civil War, the city quickly became part of the area occupied by rebel troops, not historical events of significance occur.
During the Franco intensifies the process of depopulation of the province which must necessarily affect the city.
After the Civil War Avila participation in Spanish society is restricted to little action, perhaps the most relevant, but not her best known, the provision or support for the launch of politicians. Already in the nineteenth century, Mariano José de Larra won a seat in Parliament to be submitted in Avila. Similarly Adolfo Suárez (Spanish president during the transition and first president of post-Franco democracy) performed part of his political career from Ávila (born in the town of Cebreros), in the next decade José María Aznar (president from 1996 to 2004) was elected deputy in the Cortes Avila, despite not being Avila. We can cite other ministers who have begun their political career from this city as Agustin Rodriguez Sahagun, Agustín Díaz de Mera, or Angel Acebes. However, these contributions in no way reflect the real influence of the city or province in Spanish politics, which is well below the relevance of these people.
Avila is seeing its population gradually increases, despite being one of the least populated province capitals. Also, Avila forms a small conurbation of 59,191 inhabitants with the municipalities that surround it.
Art and Culture
he city is "a Historic-Artistic national" since 1884 and is included in the list of "Heritage of Humanity" by Unesco since 1985.
In religious architecture, stands the cathedral (XII-XV century) and military role through its fortified seat, the Romanesque churches of San Vicente (siglos XII-XIV) and San Pedro and the monastery of St. Thomas (fifteenth century residence summer of the Catholic Kings).
The teacher begins Fruchel works inspired by the Abbey of Saint-Denis church giving the appearance of sobriety and Classicism brings the earlier Gothic structures, making the work in initiating the penetration of French Gothic. In the fourteenth century Bishop D. Sancho Davila reactive works.
• Facade northern Gothic style on the left and right added Renaissance. Home of the Apostles.
• West facade: Burgundian style, with two towers forming a covered porch.
• Interior: Latin cross with three naves, a transept and ambulatory.
• Chapel more: It highlights the monumental altarpiece by Pedro Berruguete from 1499 until his death.
• Altar de San Segundo: Townhouse to a column of the cruise. Renaissance style.
• Altar of St. Catherine: Made in alabaster.
• Choir and choir: Renaissance style, is designed with two levels of seating and decorated with reliefs showing scenes of saints. The choir is a masterpiece carved in limestone.
• Faculty: Access from the church by a Romanesque door from the south aisle. Gothic style.
Basilica of San Vicente
• Its construction began in the twelfth century and lasted until the XIV. The layout is attributed to Fruchel Giral French teacher, and author of the cathedral itself and introduced the Gothic style in Spain.
• The overall structure is similar to the Latin basilica. It has a Latin cross plan, three aisles, dome, stands, three apses, atrium, two towers and crypt.
• The entire facade and the environment where it is located are of great artistic value.
• Interior: Ground Latin cross with three naves. The pillars are semicolumns Greek cross with the heads.
• Vault: Consists of three chapels, for the three apses of the church are essentially Romanesque capitals and have the best monument.
Highlight the tomb of St. Peter's boat and, above all, the Cenotaph of the Holy Martyrs Brothers, owner of the church, San Vicente de Avila, and her sisters, along with the torture he suffered in the fourth century, St. Sabina and Santa Cristeta, one of the most important works of Romanesque sculpture in Spain.
Iglesia de San Pedro
• Date beginning: in the 1100s.
• is outside the walled enclosure at Grande Market Square at the door of the Alcazar. Is analogous to that of San Vicente.
• Latin cross plan and three naves of five sections. Apse chapels: Chapel, Chapel Apse Apse Chapel south and north.
Ermita de San Segundo
Beautiful chapel west of Avila, outside the walls, on the right bank of the river Adaja. Highlights the sculpted capitals in which the sculptor is the footprint of the apse of St. Andrew. Alabaster statue made by Juan de Juni. Popular belief has it that introducing a handkerchief in the tomb and asking for three wishes, granted the holy one. His pilgrimage is celebrated on the second day of May, being the master of Avila.
Palacio de Don Diego Eagle
XVI century palace is located within the wall and attached to it upon entering the gate of St. Vincent, defended the access of Muslim troops. Located on a busy street by different arms of the Aguilar family.
Real Monasterio de Santo Tomas
The Royal Monastery of Santo Tomás is a Dominican convent in the late fifteenth century. Despite being away from the historic center, is one of the most important monuments of the city.
Shrine of Our Lady of Sonsoles
Located 6 km from the capital, is the sanctuary in a beautiful campus, housing a restaurant, inn, picnic areas, playgrounds, etc..
There is located the carving of the Virgin of Sonsoles, the co-patron saint of Avila and the fields in the province.
It is tradition in this town make pilgrimage to the shrine, making a wish to the Virgin and get to the door barefoot to enter the church.
Finally, civil architecture, Valderrábanos Palace (XV century), the house of the Deanes (sixteenth century), the Tower of Guzman and the palace of the Verdugo (ss.XV-XVI) are the most important buildings .
The Walls of Ávila
Its main monument is the imposing walls of Avila (siglos XI-XIV), medieval work was started in 1090. The fenced area is 31 hectares, has a perimeter of approximately 2516 meters, 88 buckets or semicircular towers, 2,500 battlements, paintings by 3 m. thick, an average height of 12 m. and 9 gates. It is the largest fully illuminated monument in the world.
Conference and Exhibition Center North Canvas
• In mid 2007, work began on the convention center. In April 2009 the implementation was completed, opening its doors ever since.
• The building designed by architect Francis Joseph Manga is the modernist style. Its area of 19,800 m² is built, which would add the area corresponding to the neighboring gardens and parking.
• Consists of a symphony hall, large glass galleries, café, restaurant, conference room, catering services, storage, reception, school, etc.
• The symphony hall has a capacity for 2,000 people and the secondary room 500. The two conference rooms each with a capacity of 1,000 seats.
Museums and cultural
• Museo de Avila
• Museum of the Incarnation
• Museum of St. Teresa
• Cathedral Museum
• Museum of Santo Tomas
• Museum of Oriental Art
• Museum of Natural Sciences
• Living Water
Room • Tower of Guzmanes
• Sala de la Diputación
• Chamber of Episcopio
• Museum Caprotti (future museum located in the Palace Superunda, currently undergoing renovation to house the work of Italian painter Guido Caprotti (1887-1966), based in Avila from 1916).
Avila has 2 Universities:
• Catholic University of Avila (UCAV).
• University of Mysticism, which began operating on 2 September 2008.
Dependent and 3 colleges of the University of Salamanca (USAL)
• The School of Avila.
• College of Education and Tourism in Avila.
• College of Nursing.
• Public Library of Avila (Cathedral Square)
• Biblioteca José Jiménez Lozano (Avenida de la Inmaculada)
• Library Posada Fair (Plaza de la Feria)
• Library Olegario González de Cardedal (C / Jesús Jiménez)
Parks and gardens
• The green lung of the city is the main garden of the gardens followed by Soto of San Antonio, El Recreo, La Encarnación, San Roque, San Vicente, and so on.
• The garden of the Stevens, on the outskirts of the city is the large green space that has more than 100 plant species, which is a bar-restaurant, playground, road, river Adaja, etc..
• The garden of San Antonio, in the northern zone of the city is a good example of tranquility nature, since it has more than 50 plant species, and several sources in different rides for the park that counts. It is an important center of bottles throughout the year, the proximity of different nightlife and police permissiveness compared to other places where there was this social phenomenon.
• The Gardens of El Recreo, La Encarnación, San Roque, San Vicente, are other small gardens in which stands the shrine in the garden of El Recreo where concerts are held in summer.
• Ciudad Deportiva: Summer Pools, Swimming Pool, tennis, paddle tennis, athletics, football, basketball, etc..
• North: Heated swimming pool, football, basketball and tennis.
• Club Casino Abulense: Pools, Golf, Tennis, Paddle, Cafeteria, Restaurant, Football, Skating, Basketball etc.
• Naturavila: Golf, swimming pools, horse riding, walking, basketball, paddle tennis, soccer, etc..
• Polideportivo de San Antonio in the north of the city is a large covered pavilion with basketball courts, tennis, soccer, handball, climbing.
• Polideportivo Carlos Sastre: the outskirts of the city. His inauguration took place on January 30th 2009 under a friendly match between Club Basket obile of the LEB Plata and the CB LEB Gold Lion has basketball courts, soccer, tennis, volleyball, etc..
The first public celebration after the cold winter is Easter. The temperature is cold, especially at night, so do not forget the warm clothing.
The holidays are Avila on October 15, St. Teresa of Jesus, and May 2, San Segundo. The festivities take place around October 15 and the Summer Festival in mid July.
Easter Abulense considered of national tourist interest is one of the highest expressions of art and wealth that are covered in Easter numerous steps that run through the walled city. With 15 fraternities processions and 12 is one of the most beautiful of Castile and Leon.
Parties of Holy Teresa
The festivities of Santa Teresa last almost the entire month of October. The proclamation is performed in the Plaza Mayor the mayor, accompanied by some famous person. After the proclamation is organized in the same square with a musical performance by renowned singers.
The festival program includes several concerts, a fairground, bullfights, street dances, parades of the rocks, chocolate with churros and liturgical acts naturally focus on the day of the patron, 15 October, with a multitudinous Mass presided over by the Bishop, then celebrated a great procession, headed the image of Santa Teresa next to the Virgin of Charity, and is accompanied by all the authorities of Ávila, civil and military, and several bands of music. The procession takes place between the Cathedral of Avila and St. Teresa's Church. Takes place the day before the "Procession Girl" from the Church of Santa Teresa to the cathedral.
Highways and motorways
• AP-51 Connection Avila: Villacastín - Ávila
• A-51 Ring of Avila
• A-50 motorway Avila-Salamanca Culture
• N-110 Carretera N-110: Soria - San Esteban de Gormaz - Segovia - Avila - Plasencia
• N-501 Avila - Peñaranda de Bracamonte - Salamanca
Avila station is important because it has long been the hub where the Madrid-northern Spain, was separated from the branch to Salamanca and Oñoro sources. Moreover, at this point ended the electrification of the line to pass the Sierra, from Madrid, and electric locomotives were changed for others of steam.
Is losing its importance as a railway junction, having opened and the AVE high speed train between Madrid and Valladolid, Segovia. Avila station has been reproduced by a brand of model railway Modeling, which distributes the model for many countries.
The nearest international airport to the city is Madrid-Barajas, 130 kilometers Handily. Other nearby airports are: Valladolid, with some international flights, located at 148 km and that of Salamanca, 89 km.
10 km from the city of Avila is the airfield of El Fresno, a local flying club sporting character.
Ávila city buses belonging to the company AVILABUS
Line 1 From Plaza San Nicolas to Police Academy
Line 2 From Discovery to University Center Plaza
Line 3 Circular
Line 4 from El Pinar to Police Academy
Circular Line 5
Line 6 From School to Highway Police Sonsoles (Macera)
Line 7 from Cuatro Postes to Santa Ana via Chico Market
Line P from industrial sites to highlights of the City.
Line V From Plaza San Nicolas to the Poligono Industrial Vicolozano
• Diario de Ávila
• Ávila Digital
• People in Avila
• El Norte de Castilla: Noticias de Ávila
• Avila Cadena Ser
• COPE Avila
• Punto Radio Avila
• National Radio of Spain Avila
• TV Castilla y León 7
• TV Castilla y León 8
Avila has a large assortment of stores in which include:
• Boulevard Mall, just outside of town, home to nearly a hundred shops, several franchises and a Carrefour hypermarket.
• Shopping Center Avila 2, located in the garden is a small recess of 30 local mall, but most of them have no business.
• Galleries San Roque, on the promenade of San Roque.
• Multitienda Mall, on the street Eduardo Marquina.
• Macero Shopping Center, home to a Sabeco hypermarket chain, with over 20 shops.
Commercial theaters in the city are the Star cinema in the Boulevard shopping center, with 6 halls, cinemas and Tomás Luis de Victoria Street Lesquin, two rooms. There are also rooms where you can make projections, including the Municipal Auditorium in San Francisco and the Episcopale.
Throughout the summer you can enjoy nightly visits to the wall and weekend tours, dramatized, on which account of the history of the construction of the walls and the city, while in 2009 there have been no because of the works that run on the monument.
The first weekend of September each year conducts a medieval market in the old city, several squares and streets within the walls, being able to enjoy the ambiance, entertainment and cuisine of the Middle Ages itself.
In 2007 it conducted the eleventh edition, and always with the slogan Market 3 cultures, referring to the major cultures that have been involved in city life: Christian, Jewish, Arabic.
During this week of the city and many residents dress in period and are held parades and shows throughout the day and into the night in different areas with their respective denominations, among which are the Jewish quarter Arab souk, the medieval village, the military camp of archers, markets, children's corner, the episcope, falconry and many corners. During the Medieval Market, the great attraction of this city, being one of the most numerous and pioneers in our country, tourists from almost doubled Avila.